Researchers from the group of Hans Clevers at the Hubrecht Institute have modeled the development and progression of high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mini-versions of the female reproductive organs of the mouse. They found out that the cells of the oviduct, the equivalent of fallopian tubes in humans, are more prone to develop into tumors than those of the ovarian surface epithelium, the outer layer of the ovaries. In the future, such mini-versions, or organoids, of human tissue may be used to better understand how this disease, that is often diagnosed very late, develops. The researchers published their results in the scientific journal Nature Communications on the 27th of May.
Earlier diagnosis and preventive care
Studying the development and progress of ovarian cancer in such organoid models may help to better understand how ovarian cancer develops in the body. Researchers in the group of Hans Clevers have previously shown that organoids can also be made from the human fallopian tube and the human ovarian surface epithelium. In the future, the researchers may also introduce the specific mutations found in ovarian cancer in these human organoids to further study the development of this disease.
Patients with a mutation in one of the Brca genes are at a high risk of ovarian cancer and can receive preventive treatment. This includes radical surgery in which both ovaries as well as the fallopian tubes are removed, leading to premature menopause in these women. The results in this study support the emerging view that the fallopian tube, not the ovarian surface epithelium around the ovaries, are the main origin for ovarian cancer, which may direct future changes in (preventive) treatment. For example, the Dutch Gynaecological Oncology Group recently launched a clinical trial to study whether early removal of only the fallopian tubes and later removal of the ovaries can improve the quality of life for these patients, while also reducing the risk of ovarian cancer.
Knowing more about the development and progression of ovarian cancer may help doctors to better recognize ovarian cancer in the future, enabling earlier treatment and a higher chance of survival.
Lõhmussaar et al., Assessing the origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer using CRISPR-modification of mouse organoids. Nature Comms 2020 11(1):2660