Safety-related problems continue to be one of the major causes of drug attrition in preclinical and clinical development. Preclinical safety assessment is hampered due to a lack of in vitro models of normal healthy human cells. In order to predict human toxicity, animal testing is used – even though many studies demonstrated that animal models are poor predictors of drug safety in humans – but no alternatives existed. Additionally, it remains unclear which animal species resembles a human response, as it differs depending on the compound.

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